Queen Elizabeth I, daughter to Henry VIII, became England’s ruler in 1558. One of her first acts as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she was made Supreme Governor. During her reign, tension was high between Protestants and Catholics and Queen Elizabeth was constantly concerned for her throne.
In 1567, Elizabeth’s Catholic cousin, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots was forced to give up her Scottish throne and fled to England, where she was placed under house arrest. There were rumors and plots among Catholics to overthrow the queen and replace her with Mary. England’s military was weak, the treasury lean, and relations with neighboring countries tenuous. Security depended on intelligence. Continue reading “Queen Elizabeth’s Spy Master”